Providing guidelines for implementing sustainable practices for traditional petroleum based plastics, biobased plastics, and recycled plastics, Sustainable Plastics and the Environment explains what sustainable plastics are, why sustainable plastics are needed, which sustainable plastics to use, and how manufacturing companies can integrate them into their manufacturing operations. A vital resource for practitioners, scientists, researchers, and students, the text includes impacts of plastics including Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) and sustainability strategies related to biobased plastics and petroleum based plastics as well as end-of-life options for petroleum and biobased plastics.
Chapter 1. Introduction to Sustainability 11.1 Sustainability Definition1.2 Green Chemistry Definitions1.3 Green Engineering Definitions1.4 Sustainability Definitions for Manufacturing1.5 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)1.6 Lean and Green Manufacturing1.7 Summary1.8 References1.9 Review Questions1.10 Review Problems1.11 Review ExercisesChapter 2. Environmental Issues 132.1 The Planet is Warming2.2 Melting of Glaciers2.3 Rising Seas2.4 Causes of Global Warming2.5 Ocean Pollution and Marine Debris2.6 Chemical Pollution from Plastics2.7 Landfill Trash2.8 Summary2.9 References2.10 Review Questions2.11 Review Problems2.12 Review ExercisesChapter 3. Life Cycle Information 463.1 LCA for Environmental Hazards3.2 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Definitions3.3 ISO 14040/14044 LCA Standards3.4 Sensitivity Analysis3.5 Minimal Acceptable Framework for Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs)3.6 LCI for Petroleum-Based Plastics3.7 LCA for Biobased Poly Lactic Acid (PLA)3.8 Summary3.9 References3.10 Review Questions3.11 Review Problems3.12 Review ExercisesChapter 4. Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers 634.1 Biobased and Biodegradable Definitions4.2 Biobased Polymers4.3 Petroleum-based Compostable Polymers4.4 LCA of Compostable and Biodegradable Polymers4.5 Summary4.6 Review Questions4.7 Review Problems4.8 Review ExercisesChapter 5. Biobased and Recycled Petroleum-Based Plastics 955.1 Biobased Conventional Plastics5.2 Recycled Petroleum-Based Plastics5.3 Oxodegradable Additives for Plastics5.4 Summary5.5 References5.6 Review Questions5.7 Review Problems5.8 Review ExercisesChapter 6. End-of-Life Options for Plastics 1136.1 U.S. EPA WARM Program6.2 Mechanical recycling of plastics6.3 Chemical recycling6.4 Composting6.5 Waste to energy6.6 Landfill Operations6.7 LCA of end-of-life options6.8 Summary6.9 References6.10 Review Questions6.11 Review Problems6.12 Review ExercisesChapter 7. Sustainable Plastic Products 1297.1 Introduction7.2 Sustainable plastic packaging7.3 Sustainable plastic grocery bags7.4 LCA of sustainable plastic bottles7.5 Summary7.6 References7.7 Review Questions7.8 Review Problems7.9 Review ExercisesChapter 8. Biobased and Biodegradation Standards for Polymeric Materials 1698.1 Introduction8.2 Biobased standard test method8.3 Industrial Compost Environment8.4 Marine Environment8.5 Anaerobic Digestion8.6 Active Landfill8.7 Home Compost8.8 Soil biodegradation8.9 Summary8.10 References8.11 Review Questions8.12 Review Problems8.13 Review ExercisesChapter 9. Sustainable Strategies for Plastics Companies 2139.1 Sustainable plastics manufacturing and best practices9.2 Manual creation of LCA calculations9.3 Carbon Credits and Carbon Taxes9.4 Summary9.5 References9.6 Review Questions9.7 Review Problems9.8 Review ExercisesChapter 10. Future Sustainable Plastics 22310.1 Sustainable biobased plastics from renewable non-food sources10.2 Sustainable traditional plastics from renewable non-food sources10.3 Growth in biobased plastics with development of durable goods10.4 Growth in biobased plastics for pharmaceuticals and medical devices10.5 Summary10.6 References10.7 Review Questions10.8 Review Problems10.9 Review ExercisesAppendix A. Injection Molding 234A.1 IntroductionA.2 Process control during injection moldingA.3 Molds for injection moldingA.4 Molding defectsA.5 ReferencesAppendix B. Extrusion 249B.1 IntroductionB.2 Extrusion processingB.3 Extrusion process controlB.4 Extrusion defectsB.5 ReferencesAppendix C. Blow Molding 257C.1 Extrusion blow moldingC.2 Injection stretch blow moldingC.3 ReferencesAppendix D. Industrial Compost Biodegradation Testing 261D.1 MethodologyD.2 MaterialsD.3 Carbon Content Testing ResultsD.4 Biodegradation ResultsD.5 Phytotoxicity TestingD.6 Regulated Heavy Metals TestingD.7 ReferencesAppendix E. Marine Biodegradation Testing 269E.1 MethodologyE.2 MaterialsE.3 Experimental Set-upE.4 Marine Biodegradation ResultsAppendix F. Answers to Selected Questions at the End of Each Chapter 274